Graph/  ology  = the study of marks

When looking at graphology, we consider all the visual aspects of a text, but essentially we’re looking at everything visual except the language itself. Just try to remember to move beyond simply saying what that graphology is, and to relate it to the text’s context, meanings and intended representations.

Graphology is not an essential framework, and can be skipped, especially if everything is as you would expect it to be for the kind of text you are looking at. With this framework, it’s really only worth noting where the text strays from the standard – don’t waste your time on ‘the newspaper uses large bold font for its headline’ – how on earth are you going to make a meaningful point out of that?!? However, a text that uses the layout of a different text form playfully – that’s worth noting…


  • Is it in a “standard”/accepted form, eg letter conventions?
  • Does it focus attention on particular elements?
  • Does it copy the layout of a different kind of text for effect?

Font use

  • Is it appropriate?
  • What does it convey/connote?
  • Are techniques such as bold, italics, different sizes used?


  • Do they add interest/emphasis?
  • What are the connotations/associations of the colour(s) used?


  • Do they add to/detract from the text?
  • Are they intended to provoke a particular reaction from the reader/audience (e.g. sympathy in charity leaflet pictures)?


  • Is it deviant?  
  • What effect does this have? (more memorable/unique, conveys a sense of …?)
Frameworks ebook

All the frameworks material on this site will remain freely available here, but if you’d like to download most of it in one neat package*, to be read on a Kindle or in the Kindle app (which is free and works on PC, tablet or phone), it is available as an ebook for £2.50 on Amazon (or free on Kindle Unlimited) – see below. 

*all the pages are there, but a few of them have been updated a bit since I put the book together.