Adverbs add information to verbs, but also to adjectives, another adverb or even a whole sentence.

They often end in –ly.

Adverbials are other words or even phrases acting as adverbs.

Adverb(ial)s of manner tell how something is done: quickly, enthusiastically, “without even looking”.

Adverb(ial)s of place tell where something occurred: here, away, “in the library”.

Adverb(ial)s of time tell when, for how long or how often something occurred: soon, briefly, “a week last Tuesday”.

Adverb(ial)s of degree tell to what degree something is/was: very, hardly, incredibly.

Sentence adverbs qualify the whole sentence rather than just the verb, e.g. “Hopefully, he’ll arrive soon” – this doesn’t mean that he will arrive in a hopeful state, but that the speaker hopes he’ll arrive soon.  Therefore, sentence adverbs are particularly useful when you need to look at writer/audience positioning or attitudes in a text.  If someone starts a sentence with ‘clearly’ or ‘obviously’, for example, they make it very hard for a reader to take a different view.

Frameworks ebook

All the frameworks material on this site will remain freely available here, but if you’d like to download most of it in one neat package*, to be read on a Kindle or in the Kindle app (which is free and works on PC, tablet or phone), it is available as an ebook for £2.50 on Amazon (or free on Kindle Unlimited) – see below. 

*all the pages are there, but a few of them have been updated a bit since I put the book together.