You mainly need to know about personal pronouns at this stage. They most commonly replace people’s names. They are described by person (1st/2nd/3rd) and number (singular/plural).
- I/me – 1st person
- You – 2nd person
- He/him/she/her/it – 3rd person
- We/us – 1st person (remember that if there is a group with you in it, you will say ‘we’ or ‘us’, so those are the plural forms of ‘I’ or ‘me’)
- You – 2nd person
- They/them – 3rd person
NB: the pairs above are subject/object* pronouns
Pronouns and Gender
Third person singular pronouns are gendered in English (i.e. there is one for male subjects and a different one for female subjects). There have been attempts to introduce neutral ones, but these have been mostly unsuccessful (possibly related to the slow speed of change with functional words). It is, however, now acceptable to use the third person plural ‘they’ to refer to a singular subject – something which some people still (somewhat stubbornly) see as wrong. This has been a growing tendency to refer to unknown subjects (e.g. ‘if a customer has a complaint, they should…’), but it is also gaining popularity as a choice to signal genderfluidity or a non-binary identity and is likely to increase further, unless alternatives emerge. Singular ‘they’ was the American Dialect Society’s Word of the Year in 2015 for this reason, and the link above will take you to a very informative OED blogpost on the history of the pronoun if you’re interested.
Note that pronouns and titles/address terms (such as Miss/Mr/Mx) are not the same thing grammatically, but are related issues in this context.
Other types of pronoun:
- Demonstrative pronouns demonstrate which one we mean and are mainly used in speech – Have you seen this? Did you eat that?
- Interrogative pronouns start questions – Who ate that banana? Which did you see?
- Reflexive pronouns refer to things done to the speaker by the speaker – Baby Andrew fed himself today!
- Relative pronouns introduce a relative (or adjectival) clause, adding more information about something – Do you know the girl who always stands over there? He ate the one that I wanted.
NB: subject and object relate to the verb in the sentence. The subject does or carries out the action of the verb, while the object receives it:
I ate the apple – I = subject; the apple = object
We saw John in town – we = subject; John = object
John seemed happy – John = subject (happy is a complement – an adjective giving information about the subject)
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*all the pages are there, but a few of them have been updated a bit since I put the book together.